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Friday, January 11, 2013

Lots of ancient Y-DNA from China


This study from Jilin University on ancient Chinese Y-DNA features 119 individual samples from 13 archaeological sites in northern China. That's quite impressive considering that aDNA is extremely difficult to extract from Y-chromosomes. Some of the results have apparently already appeared in print, like those R from western China on the first map. They're all R1a1a, from the Xiaohe Tomb complex in the Tarim Basin, and you can read more about them here. The high incidence of N looks interesting, but at this stage I have no idea what type of N it is nor which samples it was found in, because the study is in Chinese. I'll update this entry when I find out. In any case, the homogeneity of these samples is remarkable, with single haplogroups totally dominating many of the sites.

Update 13/01/2013: A Chinese contact was kind enough to make a list of the results. Please note, the 2010 paper on the Tarim Basin mummies I linked to above only listed 7 R1a1a results, while here we have 11, plus a K*. So it looks like I was wrong, and at least some of these are from newly tested Tarim Basin samples.

Northeast
Niuheliang, Hongshan Culture, 5000 YBP, 4 N, 1 C*, 1 O
Halahaigou, Hongshan-Xiaoheyan Culture, 4500 YBP, all N
Dadianzi, Lower Xiajiadian Culture, 3600 YBP, 3 N, 2 O3
Dashanqian, Upper Xiajiadian Culture, 3000 YBP, 1 C, 3 N1c, 1 N, 2 O3-M117, 2 O3-M324
Jinggouzi, 2500 YBP, all C

Northwest
Xiaohe, Xinjiang, 3500-4000 YBP, 11 R1a1a, 1 K*
Tianshan Beilu, Hami, Xinjiang, 3300-4000 YBP, 5 N, 1 C
Heigouliang, Xinjiang, 2000 YBP, 6 Q1a*, 4 Q1b, 2 Q
Pengyang, Ningxia, 2500 YBP, all Q1a1-M120
Taojiazhai, Qinghai, 1500 YBP, all O3-M324

North
Miaozigou, Central-South Inner Mongolia, Yangshao Culture, 5500 YBP, all N
Sanguan site, Yu County, Hebei, Lower Xiajiadian Culture, 3400-3800 YBP, all O3
Hengbei site, Jiang County, Shanxi, 2800-3000 YBP, 9 Q1a1, 2 O2a-M95, 1 N, 4 O3a2-P201, 2 O3, 4 O*



See also...

European admixture in ancient East Asians (aka. two-rooted canines carried by early Indo-Europeans to China)


9 comments:

Nirjhar007 said...

It appears that the chinese scientists are following their politicians footsteps by showing the right side of kashmir and the Arunachal Pradesh as their area! it is a shameful act.

Rui said...

Nirjhar007, I totally agree. What a deplorable thing to do.

illig3 said...

Within the 12 Xiaohe graves, there are 11 R1a results, and one K* result. I find this K* result interesting.
I have read the paper of this study. The following is a list of the Y-SNP markers that have been tested in this study:

-C-M216, C-M8, C-M38, C-PK2
-F-M89
-K-M9
-NO-M214
-N-M231, N1a-M128, N1b-P43, N1c-Tat
-O-M175, -O1, O2-M95, O3-M122, O3a-M324, O3a3-P201, O3a2c1a-M117 , O3a3c1-M117, O3a-M324, O3a3-P201
-P-M45
-Q-M242, Q-MEH2
-R1a1-M198

As a conclusion from this list of tested markers, the remaining subgroups of the Y-SNP marker K-M9(xN, O, P) have not been tested. I am thinking that this K* result could belong to the Y-SNP haplogroups L or T? Do you guys agree with this? Also, since the combination of subgroups of haplogroups R and T have been found in several unexpected cases in other studies, i think this K* could belong to haplogroup T. Ofcourse in order to prove this, the K* needs to be subtyped.

Davidski said...

Yes, the K* could well be T1a2, which has been found in Europe and Xinjiang.

illig3 said...

I am going to try to contact professor Hui Zhou from the Jilin University(author of the study paper), and ask if they could subtype this K* result in order to find out if it belongs to T. Do any of you guys know scientists of the Jilin University? Which correct/official e-mail or fax address belongs to the "Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University"? I cannot reach the website of Jilin University.

Maju said...

Just noticed this entry.

Isn't it curious that most sites are dominated by non-O3 lineages such as N and Q and that only a few (Lower Xiajiadian culture, the Qinghai site) are dominated by the most common Chinese lineage today (I mean O3, of course)? There seems to be quite a demographic transition with the change from Honshang to Lower Xiajiadian, which cover more or less the same area of NE China.

Davidski said...

Have you seen this?

http://polishgenes.blogspot.com.au/2013/10/revised-migration-routes-of-eurasian-y.html

What do you make of their estimates for R1a and R1b?

Maju said...

24 Ka?! Not for me, thanks. IMO R1 has been in West Eurasia since at the very least the Gravettian era and may be as old as the Aurignacian.

As I said elsewhere, Q must have diverged from P long before the proto-Amerindian migration began, i.e. most likely Q1 arrived to Altai c. 47 Ka ago already formed. R seems older, so it has a good likelihood of being an Aurignacoid thing, directly related with the first colonization (barring the Arabian OoA journey) of West Eurasia (Neanderlands) by H. sapiens with origins in India (and possibly to some extent also SE Asia).

I'd say that both Q and R1 (with some R* possibly) expanded to West Eurasia at that early age.

Maju said...

FYI: http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.com/2013/12/ancient-east-asian-y-dna-maps.html

I largely used the info provided in this entry, so thanks again for spreading. Feel free to use my maps.