Unfortunately, this new Balaresque et al. paper is behind a pay wall, but the figures and tables and supplementary info are freely available.
Out of the 11 descent clusters (DCs) identified among Asian males, DC2 shows the strongest correlation with Indo-European languages. This cluster is based on STR haplotypes within Y-haplogroup R1a1, and is inferred to have expanded from Central Asia around 1300 BCE. In fact, to me DC2 looks like a signal of the Indo-Iranian dispersals, and associated with R1a1a1b2 (R1a-Z93) rather than R1a1 as a whole.
Here's a spatial map of DC2. The KYK marker in south Siberia represents European-like Kurgan samples from the Bronze Age. Four out of six of these individuals belonged to DC2. You can read more about them here.
Interestingly, Supplementary Figure 1 shows the presence of R*, R1*, R1b* and R1b1b2 lineages among Tajik groups (see here). Any ideas what these might really be?
High-frequency microsatellite haplotypes of the male-specific Y-chromosome can signal past episodes of high reproductive success of particular men and their patrilineal descendants. Previously, two examples of such successful Y-lineages have been described in Asia, both associated with Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic societies, and putatively linked to dynasties descending, respectively, from Genghis Khan and Giocangga. Here we surveyed a total of 5321 Y-chromosomes from 127 Asian populations, including novel Y-SNP and microsatellite data on 461 Central Asian males, to ask whether additional lineage expansions could be identified. Based on the most frequent eight-microsatellite haplotypes, we objectively defined 11 descent clusters (DCs), each within a specific haplogroup, that represent likely past instances of high male reproductive success, including the two previously identified cases. Analysis of the geographical patterns and ages of these DCs and their associated cultural characteristics showed that the most successful lineages are found both among sedentary agriculturalists and pastoral nomads, and expanded between 2100 BCE and 1100 CE. However, those with recent origins in the historical period are almost exclusively found in Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic populations, which may reflect a shift in political organisation in pastoralist economies and a greater ease of transmission of Y-chromosomes through time and space facilitated by the use of horses.
Balaresque et al., Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations, European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 14 January 2015; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.285