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Sunday, September 6, 2015

CB13: 7,400 year-old Cardial genome from near Barcelona


CB13 looks practically indistinguishable from the early Neolithic Spanish samples from Haak et al. 2015, which makes sense. The paper is open access.

Abstract: The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: an initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. While genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400 year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible.

Citation...

Olalde et al., A common genetic origin for early farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK cultures, MBE Advance Access published September 2, 2015, doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv181

59 comments:

Mike Thomas said...

Great paper
Interesting that CB13's HG component is more similar to KO1 than La Brana

truth said...

KO1 is a just a "purer" version of La Braña, apart from that, they are not that much different. So I wouldn't discard so fast the idea of spanish neolithic not having local Hunter-gather ancestry.

Davidski said...

The fact that KO1 is a better fit for the hunter-gatherer ancestry in CB13 than La Brana-1 is might have something to do with the sequencing methods used on La Brana-1.

Aram said...

Maybe I am missing something, but how to explain that almost all ENF samples had some WHG admixture initially but later they didn't admix with HGs for quite long time.

Davidski said...

Many ethnic groups are products of mixture between different populations followed by long-lasting endogamy. It seems to be a common pattern in human history.

bellbeakerblogger said...

What is the most HG ancestry we've seen in a European ENF? (I emphasize 'Early' Neolithic). It seems from the several individuals I'm aware of that it is rather low and already homogenized.

No doubt they mixed, that is certain. I'm just curious about the endogamy within farmer world.

Gioiello said...

Of course these people descend from the Cardial agriculturalists arrived from Italy 7500 years ago as Zilhao largely demonstrated. About their hgs, above all K1a2* (K1a2a is derived from) and X2c*, present largely in Tuscany and in Italy in general, I have written tons of letters. It is a pity that we haven’t so far any Y, but we’ll get next.

Rokus said...

The answer to this riddle must be that Europe's Early Neolithic derives from the Pre-Ceramic Neolithic of the Balkan. And maybe some of this wave went east as well.

Rokus said...

Ah, the paper already suggests something of the sort.

Gioiello said...

Rokus, we’ll see next. I think having demonstrated that R1b1-L389* and R-V88* (for what concerns hg. R) were in Italy and not in the Balkans. The Balkans may have received some haplogroups from the Adriatic before it were submerged, but I’d want to see some aDNA from the Balkans which demonstrates your hypothesis and of the paper’s.

Chris Davies said...

"CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians."

And also Canary Islanders [see their PCA].

It is likely to be Berber affinity [see Razib's post from 03/09/15 for reference - "The gene flow into the Spaniards, and Sardinians, is Berber-like, not Middle Eastern."]. Razib used Tunisian Berbers, while this paper only shows Jewish North Africans on their PCA which are more Middle Eastern shifted. The Canarians of course of part-Berber ancestry.

"Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula."

More their hunter-gather portion, their 'early farmer' part has stronger North African affinity.

Davidski said...

CB13 doesn't really cluster with Canary Islanders. Neither do any of the other Neolithic farmers.

Canary Islanders are shifted slightly west compared to other Spaniards because they have inflated North African Berber and Sub-Saharan ancestry.

Neolithic farmers, including those in Spain, are of Anatolian and Balkan origin. There is minor Berber admixture in Sardinia, but this arrived in Sardinia during the Islamic expansions and has nothing to do with Neolithic population movements.

Graham Little said...

It's all a bit meh now. We need some Early Neolithic from the Balkans & Middle East.

Mike Thomas said...

Graham
Yes Itll be great when they arrive. But I don't think theyll be anything unexpected. And remember that Dave already analysed Barcin- an early Neolithic from Anatolia.

Maju said...

KO1 is best fit for all EEFs. In the Treemix data it's very clear that the admixture axis stems from "pre-KO1" to the very shared EEF root. That means that KO1 is acting as good proxy for Lazaridis "UHG", although it's not quite it.

Mike Thomas said...

@ Maju

Probably because its closest to Anatolian & Balkan forager caught up in the neolithic movements. Although it makes sense, the question is how robust is the result/ reproducible and not due to differences in sequencing cover. .

Gioiello said...

@ Davidski

Which would be the North African haplogroups present in the Sardinian pool? On the contrary we have many haplogroups (from G-L91 to I-M26 etc.) which very likely from Sardinia colonized North Africa, and that from the time of the “Tuderela sulcata”. In a recent paper read to the Bologna-Ravenna Symposium has been demonstrated that also in the Phoenician rests in Sardinia only 1 seemed of North African origin and it isn’t demonstrated that those people has had descent till to-day. Many Sardinian haplogroups, thought of African or Near Eastern descent like hg . E or J, are very old in Sardinia and not present elsewhere. Also about that I wrote tons of letters.

Davidski said...

I'm sure you've seen this before.

"The A3b2-M13 sub-haplogroup, found in 7 Sardinian individuals, shows an average length of private SNPs of 21.1 (±2.7). It has been reported in Sudan and it might have been imported into Sardinia by the Romans through the slave trade, analogously to what hypothesized elsewhere for the sporadic presence of another clade of haplogroup A (namely A3-M31) in England [34]. The other predominantly African sub-haplogroup E1a1-M44, frequent in West Africa and represented by 6 samples, shows an average branch length of 10 (±2.3) SNPs."

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/8/174

Gioiello said...

I thank you for the link, but of course I know very well that paper and above all its supplements I have posted on many fora of FB in these last times, and I know personally also Francalacci, who teaches in Sassari but was born in Leghorn (Livorno) from a Pisan Family. He and the other Pisan who teaches in the Pisan University, Tofanelli, whom I met many times, are also the sample T2 and T3 of the paper (R-U152-Z36 and R-U152-DF90, both from Tuscany). They are clever persons: Francalacci was funded with 1 million euro for his research and also Tofanelli from the National Geographic (do you know who is behind it?) for demonstrating that the Ligurians deported from Romans into the “Sannio” have descendants to-day. The paper isn’t published yet. Why? After two years it would have been published. I criticized their method to demonstrate something, and for what concerns the haplotypes they know much less than me, and probably about the autosome much less than you. But from there they haven’t received no funds for their researches. Francalacci’s et al. tests are at a low coverage, and the rare (or very rare) haplotypes are bad tested, whereas the more diffuse for redundance are well tested, pretty like my Full Genome of the FGC, the best tested so far. Think that PF6714, found erroneously in R-U152 samples not completely tested, would seem to be a brother clade of R-P311. It already is in the smal’s tree c/o FTDNA (“R1b1a2 (P312-U106-) DNA Project”) and also in the Backbone test offered from FTDNA. It is a fraud. And much more I could say… I have demonstrated that many things that Francalacci wrote in his paper are wrong… communis opinio, and you know that it isn’t mine.

Aram said...

Thanks Davidski for marking the samples on the PCA. Nice job.
I was wondering who was the second PLeistocene HG near North Near East. The MA1 and Kostenki are more easier to locate.

Davidski said...

Thanks, but I didn't mark the samples. The PCA I posted is from the supp info PDF.

Maju said...

@Gioello, Davidski: That Sudan-related A3b2 in Sardinia is interesting but the "slavery" explanation makes no sense to me: we've been looking for anything like slave signature in Sicily or Peninsular Italy, where slaves are "known" to have been much more common in the Roman era, and nothing obvious arises. Also why Sudanese? Nubia was back in the day a very civilized area and not any major provider of slaves (this interpretation seems biased by Modern Era's African slave trade and Hollywood's misrepresentation of Antiquity: not just Rome but also Ancient Egypt).

Instead I would suggest it could well be yet another signature of the "Basal Eurasian" (actually African) component in EEFs, to whom Sardinians are the best preserved descendant branch, just as E1b-M78 is. Thank you for the info in any case.

Gioiello said...

Maju, I thank you for having answered me. I have written a lot about the Sardinian Hg. E (and many others) from Francalacci 2013 and 2105 on the FB blog “Human populations genetics” of my friend Vincenzo Passariello, who belongs to hg. E-V65 and is only 18 years old. Of course I have written about that from many years in many other fora. I would post some link I received on another blog about “R1b-L51-PF7589” about Berbers like ancestors of Iberians and Etruscans (very likely laughable) and others like “El castellano no viene del latìn sino del ‘ìbero” and other amenities.

Maju said...

Well, just post the link, Gioello, so I can jump to the substance, thanks.

Gioiello said...

I don’t know if I am able to post a link, anyway try with this:
conexiones prehistoricas entre bereberes, iberos ,etruscos y vascos-J J Benitez.
You may consult the FB blog of my friend Raffaele Carbotti [R1b - L51/PF7589+]. Anyway I wrote that: “You should ask yourselves who does fund this documents. There is a growing Berber nationalism against Arabs (all my sympathy for Berbers, it is enough you know some of the posters from Northern Africa in our blogs), but to say that Guanches are Berbers is one thing (even though the same documentary says that they come from Guanche women and Spanish men), but another thing is to say that Basques and Etruscans derive from Berbers. The document says that scholars don’t agree with this theory, of course. But it is enough you look at another documentary in this series: “El castellano no viene del latìn, sino del ìbero” and everything will be clear”.

Karl_K said...

@Gioiello

Thank you for your wonderful comments! It is great to know that at least someone here has already been understanding many of the new findings for many years, and has many friends in the field with excellent funding and/or blog posts.

Indeed. The origin of the Berbers is a very interesting topic. They must be a back migration from Eurasia, but when and from where?

Aram said...

Karl_k

This was my next question. :) I was asking myself did the ENF crossed the Gibraltar and entered into Maghreb (North-West Africa ) or the farming reached there trough another route via Egypt.



Maju said...

Just copy-paste (ctrl-C, ctrl-V) the link, for Chaos sake!

Gioiello said...

Karl K., of course I think that between North Africa and Europe there have been many exchanges of populations and cultures. My theory that R-V88 migrated to North Africa, after to the Sahara, and, after the drought, in many directions, presupposes that R-V88 was born in Sardinia-Italy or Iberia and it is linked with the European Hunter-Gatherers like R1a, thus not an origin in Africa but in Eurasia. Of course many mt haplogroups migrated from Europe to Africa in this time and, when those people came back, they brought with themselves some African mt hgs which are linked with the African ones many thousands of years ago and not recently. You know that Klyosov thought (I don’t know if he thinks yet) that R1b arrived in Europe from East through a North African pathway. We are discussing if some old hg. E came from Africa to Europe or from Europe to Africa, because it seems that these hgs are very old also in Europe, and only the aDNA will be able to say something definitive. What I think unreliable is that Etruscan language derive from Berber, because Berber is an Afro-Asiatic language, come very likely from Middle East, or, if from the same Africa, it has nothing to do with Etruscan, which seems intermediate between Indo-European (many thinks it is just Indo-European) and Caucasian. After that, my master in linguistics, Alfredo Trombetti, believed in the monogenesis of the languages and thought that all the languages were linked. And certainly we have many words diffused in all the Mediterranean countries and it is difficult to know where they came from, for instance the name for “goat” etc.

Gioiello said...

@ Maju

conexiones prehistoricas entre bereberes, iberos ,etruscos y vascos-J J Benitez.

I think that this doesn't run, anyway you may see these documentaries by going on "You tube" and writing these titles. It isn't difficult.

Karl_K said...

@Gioiello

Very interesting.

So it is your belief that R-V88 was born in Sardinia-Italy or Iberia? Do you think that these same Southern Europeans also brought the lactase persistance alleles common among the African R-V88 carrying peoples which are shared with the people of Northern Europe?

Gioiello said...

I was surprised, when I wrote many years ago to a Maltese who lives and teaches in Great Britain (I contacted him because he was close to my R-L23 (now I am Z2110*) and he ceased writing me because the Phoenician propaganda of the man we know convinced all them having a Phoenician root and not an European one or other as I said), in knowing that his surname , Hebeyer, derived from an Arab word for “goat for one years”. The word “bera”, “berra” and similar is diffused also in the Alpine zone and Maju could say us if also in Basque, because it seems just a Basque-like word.

Gioiello said...

@ Karl K

If we think that the lactase persistence was brought to Africa from the R-V88, I'd opt for an Iberian origin, because Italy is largely lactose intolerant (me too and all my relatives), and I think that the lactose tolerance were in some way in Iberia and brought to Northern Europe from the Bell Beakers from Iberia. Not to Italy, which remains largely lactose intolerant, not so Iberia.

Karl_K said...

@Maju

Could you please enlighten us beyond this Phoenician propaganda?

Is there a Basque cognate for this Maltese Hebeyer which has diffused also in the Alpine zone?

Karl_K said...

@Gioiello

This could be true, huh?

R1b, lactase persistance, and pastorialism arrived in Africa very early via Iberia through a Bell Beaker migration?

Gioiello said...

Don't forget that an R1b, very likely R-V88 (not V35 not M18) has been found in Iberia and could be linked with these last mts, clearly from Italy. It depends when R-V88 migrated to Africa. I have written much about that on eng.molgen, and Palamede was kind in referring to me on Anthrogenica, where I was banned from...

Gioiello said...

@ Karl k
I am saying from ten years that the richest man of the world, a Lebanese who lives in Mexico, funds through National Geographic (thus with a link with FTDNA) all these studies for demonstrating the presence of Phoenician descendants in the Mediterranean Sea and always against Rome and italy. For that I am being banned from all the fora. In this last times it seems that there is also an agenda in favour of the massive migration to Europe from Middle East and elsewhere.

Karl_K said...

@Gioiello

I'm sorry to hear of your banning. Some people can not handle the truth I suppose.

It simply makes sense that R1b would have arrived in Africa from Southern Europe. And this is probably a case where Y haplogroup has followed the culture of pastorilism while leaving little else behind (besides a bit of the lighter skin and lots of lactose tolerance).

The question of the Berbers is of course different. They are 13000 years in Africa at least. And perhaps they came through the middle east?

Karl_K said...

@Gioiello

"In this last times it seems that there is also an agenda in favour of the massive migration to Europe from Middle East and elsewhere."

No doubt. Just today I have read in the news about a massive migration from the Middle East to Europe. This just sounds crazy. If people can just build crappy rafts and paddle their way to Europe from North Africa and the Middle East, then why has this never occured at any other time in history before now? Sounds like propaganda!

Gioiello said...

@ Karl K

Of course the Berber languages are of the Afro-Asiatic stock and their origin is in Middle East or Northern East Africa, but about the origin of Berbers we may discuss, because they have many mt hgs of clearly European origin (from Iberia very likely) and also the dominant Y, E-M81, it isn’t said that it hasn’t come from Europe, because the oldest subclades are in Sardinia and in all the Western Europe till the Isles. We’ll see. I am discussing with very open minded Berbers on other fora and have access to the YFull J1 group.

Karl_K said...

@Maju

"Just copy-paste (ctrl-C, ctrl-V) the link, for Chaos sake!"

I have been trying for over an hour! Please give better instructions, or at least say for whom the directions apply next time!

Gioiello said...

@ Karl K

Maju was sayin that to me.

Karl_K said...

@Maju

Nevermind. It seems that you were saying that to someone else.

Kristiina said...

There is a recent paper on lactose persistence in Africa: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929714000676

According to this paper, T-13910 spread to Northern Africa and West Africa from Iberia.

An article on Genome Web makes an overview of the study: "For example, the presence of a variant called G-13915, which appears to have originated in the Middle East, in populations in North Africa points to migration between the regions and coincides with known historical interactions between the populations.

On the other hand, their work turned up distinct lactose persistence variants that appear to have arisen in various parts of Africa through convergent evolution. For instance, one lactose tolerance variant was more or less exclusive to northern Kenya, Ethiopia, and northern Sudan.

Another lactose tolerance-linked variant was specific to populations in Kenya and Tanzania and to Bantu-speaking Xhosa and San hunter-gatherer populations in southern Africa. That hints at introduction of the variant from East Africa, perhaps indirectly via Bantu migration, Tishkoff said. She noted that populations in southern Africa that carry the allele today may also have had a much broader distribution at one time.

Interestingly, the researchers also detected classic European lactose tolerance alleles in some West- and North-Central African populations, such as the Fulani in Cameroon and Algeria's Mozabite population."

Gioiello said...

a) Basco barro einjaehriges maennl. Schaf – b) Valtellina barro capro, bar ariete, montone, Milan. bera pecora, Canv. berro, Provenzale mod. berro montone, Albanese ber pecora, ecc. – Georg, ekhbari montone?
(Alfredo Trombetti, Elementi di glottologia, 1923, p. 126)

Gioiello said...

"Interestingly, the researchers also detected classic European lactose tolerance alleles in some West- and North-Central African populations, such as the Fulani in Cameroon and Algeria's Mozabite population."

Just the peoples with high R-V88!

Shaikorth said...

@Kristiina, Gioiello

As per that study T-13910 and A-22018 are much more common in Fulani and Mozabites than in Italians and Lebanese.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0002929714000676-gr2.jpg

They peak in North Europe, but when it comes to shared ancestry Lebanese and Italians are much closer to that. Even when it comes to R1b-type Italian clades are closer to North European clades than V88 is. This looks like recent positive selection in Africa, as the authors suggest.

Chris Davies said...

My own analysis of the European lactase persistence haplotype [originally posted by me on Bell Beaker Blogger's site back in June]:-

*Derived at 1 position [from ancestral haplotype]:- Iranians [x2]; Ob-Ugrics [x2];
*Derived at 2 positions:- Sudan Mahas [x1]; Sudan Gali [x2]; Utah Whites[x1]; Levant Arabs [x2]; Ob-Ugrics [x1];
*Derived at 3 positions:- Saudi Arabia [x1]; Fulani Sudanese [x1]; Baluch [x1]; Morocco [x1]; Levant Arbs [x3]; Kalash [x2]; South Korea [x1];
*Derived at 4 positions:- Sudan Mahas [x3]; Levant Arabs [x1]; Iranians [x1]; Kalash [x1]; South Korea [x2];
*Derived at 5 positions:- Saudi Arabia [x1]; Sudan Mahas [x1]; Morocco [x1]; Iranians [x3]; South Korea [x2];

*Derived at 6 positions - FIRST HAPLOTYPE CONTAINING 13910*T:- Fulani Sudanese [x1];
*Derived at 7 positions - SECOND HAPLOTYPE CONTAINING 13910*T:- Baluch [x1];
*Derived at 10 positions - THIRD HAPLOTYPE CONTAINING 13910*T:- Morocco [x1];

[Then skipping others]

**Derived at 16 positions - FIRST HAPLOTYPE FOUND TO CONTAIN BOTH 13910*T & 22018*A IN LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM [THE HALLMARK OF THE 'EUROPEAN' LP HAPLOTYPE]:- Iranians [x1];

*Derived at 17 positions - MORE HAPLOTYPES CONTAINING BOTH 13910*T & 22018*A IN LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM:- Levant Arabs [x1]; Morocco [x1]; Utah [x1];

*Derived at 18 positions - MORE HAPLOTYPES CONTAINING 13910*T & 22018*A IN LD:- Ob-Ugrics [x1]; Levant Arabs [x1]; Saharawi [x2]; Baluch [x1]; Fulani Sudanese [x3]; Utah [x1];

*Derived at 18 positions - ONE HAPLOTYPE CONTAINING 13910*T BUT NOT CONTAINING 22018*A:- Fulani Sudanese [x1];

[Many more omitted]

[Cameroon Fulani and Chad Bulala also have 13910*T and 22018*A in linkage disequilibrium - exact number of positions derived at unknown]

andrew said...

One question that was viewed as really pressing back in the day, when uniparental DNA was all that was available, what what % of modern Western Europeans were respectively pre-First Farmer, First Farmer, and post-First Farmer in origins.

Now that we have autosomal data, drawing the line between pre-First Farmer and First Farmer seems much more fraught than anticipated, because the First Farmers of Europe themselves had substantial European hunter-gatherer admixture and because the differences between the Western European hunter-gatherers and those that admixed with the First Farmers (who seemed to have stayed quite endogamous in their initial migrations) is pretty subtle.

But, it seems to me that an answer to the last question, post-First Farmer, ought to be possible at this point to answer fairly definitively (maybe in map form that shows variation by region), but I've seen relatively few clear efforts to answer that question on those terms.

Maju said...

@Gioello: I was asking for the links to the blog articles you mentioned. As for J.J. Benítez, he is a pseudoscience author about UFOs and stuff like that ("Jesus was a Nordic-looking E.T." and what-not), already "famous" when I was a teenager (he's as old as my mother!) I would suggest you ignore that junk altogether (makes me giggle, honestly).

@Karl: I don't understand the question. I'm missing background, as the continuous request for links should suggest.

"I have been trying for over an hour! Please give better instructions, or at least say for whom the directions apply next time!"

I don't understand how it can be so difficult to copy-paste an Internet address (aka 'link'), honestly.

Maju said...

@Kristiina: The study you mention is more than a year old, I already commented back in the day at my blog and it is quite clear that the T-13910 allele in NW Africa and West Asia is of European derivation (if they say from Iberia, I'll take that), however there is more diversity in this allele in Central Africa (Bulala, Fulani) and in that case the origin is not clear (and could be hypothesized that the European alleles derives from the African ones or vice versa until a more detailed study is done).

Two of the East African alleles are distantly related to T-13910 (European and Central African allele), so they could share a common origin (but uncertain if the original haplotype, never sequenced, was lactose tolerant or not). One seems to stem from Sudan, while the other (dominant in Arabia Peninsula) seems to originate in the Horn of Africa. Overall it's possible that this cluster of lactose tolerant alleles might stem from Sudan or nearby areas but the matter requires further research. The issue looks interesting because of the R1b and E1b convoluted Europe-Africa relations, as well as the relations of both regions with West Asia.

Finally another allele is important in East Africa proper (with lesser penetration into Southern Africa) and is totally unrelated to the previous cluster.

Maju said...

Oops, I had totally forgotten about your mini-study commentary, Chris. It is not conclusive but indeed suggestive of African origin, especially if we conflate with the other two related alleles, which seem to be African at the root. Link to the entry (scroll in comments): http://bellbeakerblogger.blogspot.com/2015/06/10-of-bronze-age-europeans-lactase.html

Gioiello said...

@ Maju

I thank you for your suggestion. Unfortunately those documentaries were posted in these FB blogs from my friends, mostly newbies, and I had to reply something. Of course I understood soon their reliability, but my question remains: who does fund them and many others? Many things of National Geographic aren’t better by a scientific point of view or many trees and many SNPs of a known genetic firm. About the origin of R-V88 I think having demonstrated that Sardinia gets the oldest haplotypes, which brings to M18 and V35, and that Africa has only late haplotypes derived from Z7771 and the close V69. For that I asked that Sergey Malyshev did a tree of R1b1* like he did and is doing of R1b1a2, but no answer, and above all the Jewish R-V88 (I am saying that they are of Iberian descent and not the other way around) don’t publish their Big Y, and the Fulani (perhaps), actually Nigerian , Auwalu Musa, who gave me access to his data, has been thrown out from the “R1b1 (M73- M269-) FTDNA Project”. These are facts that ask for an answer.

PF said...

I don't understand how they're coming to the conclusion of the Balkans as the birthplace of ENF. Is this based on archeological evidence, because I'm not seeing it in the genetics?

Barcin had a ton of WHG and was pretty far east of the Balkans. G2a, overwhelmingly the hg of the first farmers, is estimated to have its deepest roots in eastern Anatolia and thereabouts. Agricultural studies of grain domestication point to the same exact area. It even matches up nicely with what they teach you in 3rd grade about the "Fertile Crescent" and all that.

So, the question remains whether an early farming population was moving westward and mixed with a very purely WHG population on it's way to Europe, or, whether there was some kind of WHG in the region all along. And honestly I wouldn't be too surprised if it's the latter -- that ancient genomes from the region will have WHG that predated farming.

The Bedouins and other Southern Arabians may be throwing things off our analyses.

Chris Davies said...

"I don't understand how they're coming to the conclusion of the Balkans as the birthplace of ENF. Is this based on archeological evidence, because I'm not seeing it in the genetics?"

The assumption that all early farming and all early farmers must have radiated out of the fertile crescent into Europe *almost entirely* through one wave only [via the Balkans]. With the possibility of another, equally important but more pastoralist-focused wave in the western Med being ignored. The assumption that Sardinia was largely settled from the north. And opposition to the idea of migration from North Africa directly into Europe in pre-history.

Karl_K said...

@PF
"So, the question remains whether an early farming population was moving westward and mixed with a very purely WHG population on it's way to Europe, or, whether there was some kind of WHG in the region all along."

Another big question is this "Basal Eurasian" population. It seems clear that people were collecting half-wild seeds and re-planting them for quite a long time. But which 'genetic' population was doing it? Farming also spread eastward, but we don't seem to be seeing the same genetics in modern populations there. Little Basal Euasian and little WHG.

Hopefully, ancient DNA will give us the answers.

Mike Thomas said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Maju said...

@Mike: Not WHG senso stricto, because all WHG samples are epi-Magdalenian and there was never any Magdalenian in the Balcans, let alone Anatolia. So we should talk properly in terms of the mysterious Lazaridis' "UHG", for which KO1 now seems a reasonable proxy (but not quite it either), whose link to WHG is probably of Gravettian age (i.e. rather loose, even if both share lack of "ANE" in contrast to EHG and SHG).

Epipaleolithic West Anatolia so far is a blank page. Epipaleolithic Greece is better known and it is apparent that there was some sort of intense mixture and interaction between people migrating along the coast of Southern Turkey and those Epipaleolithic "Greeks", which are probably the UHG of Lazaridis. It's plausible that this "UHG" mixture also influenced Western Turkey. See: http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.com/2015/09/revising-aegean-neolithic-genesis.html

Mike Thomas said...
This comment has been removed by the author.