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Friday, February 19, 2016

Maternal genetic variation across two millennia in southwest Turkey


Recently published at Royal Society Open Science:

More than two decades of archaeological research at the site of Sagalassos, in southwest Turkey, resulted in the study of the former urban settlement in all its features. Originally settled in late Classical/early Hellenistic times, possibly from the later fifth century BCE onwards, the city of Sagalassos and its surrounding territory saw empires come and go. The Plague of Justinian in the sixth century CE, which is considered to have caused the death of up to a third of the population in Anatolia, and an earthquake in the seventh century CE, which is attested to have devastated many monuments in the city, may have severely affected the contemporary Sagalassos community. Human occupation continued, however, and Byzantine Sagalassos was eventually abandoned around 1200 CE. In order to investigate whether these historical events resulted in demographic changes across time, we compared the mitochondrial DNA variation of two population samples from Sagalassos (Roman and Middle Byzantine) and a modern sample from the nearby town of Ağlasun. Our analyses revealed no genetic discontinuity across two millennia in the region and Bayesian coalescence-based simulations indicated that a major population decline in the area coincided with the final abandonment of Sagalassos, rather than with the Plague of Justinian or the mentioned earthquake.

So the results show significant mtDNA continuity in the region, but...

In agreement with published data from modern Turkish populations [26], lineages of East Eurasian descent assigned to macro-haplogroup M were found in the modern sample from Ağlasun. This haplogroup is significantly more frequent in Ağlasun (15%) than in Byzantine Sagalassos, where it is absent (the non-significant value of the Roman sample might be most likely due to its low sample size), thus indicating that this East Eurasian component may have been introduced later, either recently or even as early as the Seljuk invasion of Turkey in the eleventh century CE.



Ottoni et al., Comparing maternal genetic variation across two millennia reveals the demographic history of an ancient human population in southwest Turkey, Royal Society Open Science, Published online February 17, 2016, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150250

23 comments:

Rob said...

15% 'Turkic' impact seems a reasonable estimate. And that's southwest Anatolia.
So much for simplistic visions of 'no Turkic impact' in Anatolia. Thousands of Turkic horsemen settled the breadth of Anatolia between 11 - 13 cc. CE.

Krefter said...

There was a similar West Eurasian, West Asian mtDNA was there for the past 2,000 years. There's no way to know if new West Asans repopulated the region over the last 2,000 years.

Karl_K said...

@ Krefter

"There's no way to know if new West Asans repopulated the region over the last 2,000 years."

Perhaps you would care to rephrase this in a more scientific manner.

Do you seriously believe that there is not a way to know?

http://italicroots.lefora.com said...

Haplogroup M is actually South Asian not East Asian. Modern Turks have not changed in the last two millennia, beside a small genetic admixture (15%) from India and Pakistan.

Onur said...

Haplogroup M is actually South Asian not East Asian. Modern Turks have not changed in the last two millennia, beside a small genetic admixture (15%) from India and Pakistan.

They say "macro-haplogroup M", so it includes East Asian haplogroups. Also they explicitly state in the article that the macro-haplogroup M found in Ağlasun are East Eurasian.

Onur said...

It will be way more informative if they also do a genomewide autosomal and Y-DNA study of the ancient and modern genetics of the same region. In fact, they allude to a possible autosomal and Y-DNA spatiotemporal study of the region in the near future at the end of their conclusion: "Whether this hypothetical contraction was due to increased death rate or migration out of the region remains unclear, and—together with the overall demographic scenario described here—needs to be better addressed by incorporating nuclear markers on a large genomic scale."

Onur said...

It would also be quite instructive to do various ancient DNA tests on Seljuk Turks in addition to Byzantine Greeks. There are Seljuk Turkish skeletons from the 11th century AD Anatolia such as the ones in Oluz Höyük.

http://italicroots.lefora.com said...

@Onur

1. Indigenous South Asians (ASI) are East Eurasian too.

2. Haplo M predominates among South Asians, including the gypsies.

3. Many Turkic groups like the Turkmens, have plenty of South Asian admixture.

Onur said...

@http://italicroots.lefora.com

They are referring to macro-haplogroup M and so to every haplogroup derived from M (including those designated with other letters such as C and D).

Kristiina said...

Onur, I checked the M haplotypes described in the supplementary Excel file, and they are in part South Asian. Agl11, Agl13, Agl53 and Agl54 are M3, and there are three different haplotypes. Only Agl13 and Agl53 are identical. However, there are several South Siberian C4 and D4 haplotypes that are with all probability of Turkic origin.
Agl8: a similar haplotype is shared with a Turkic speaking Uzbekh from Xinjiang (C4a1a1), HVR1 129-150-223-298-327-(519), HVR2 73 195 249d 263; and
a Buryat speaking Barghut from Altai (C4a1a1), HVR1 129-150-223-249-298-327, HVR2 73 195 249D 263 315.1C

Agl18, Agl21, Agl23: a similar haplotype with 1 steppe difference in HVR1 is shared with a Kipchak Turkic speaking Karanogay (C4a2), HVR1 167-171-223-298-327-344-357; and a Yakut;

Agl39: a similar haplotype with 1 steppe difference in HVR1 is shared with a Mongol from Xinjiang (D4h?), HVR1 171-223-311-362, HVR2 73 263 309+C 315; and
this haplotype is also shared with an ancient Cumanian (Cumanian26) and a modern Buryat.

Agl22, Agl25, Agl30 (HVR1 16223-16356): could be a D4 haplotype but I could not find a similar haplotype anywhere.

apostateimpressions said...

Is it possible to estimate how much of the Ağlasun M is East Asian and how much of it is South Asian?

How would we explain the expansion of South Asian M into Ağlasun?

Rob said...

"How would we explain the expansion of South Asian M into Ağlasun?"

The Turkic tribes which arrived to Anatolia did so continuously from the late 11th century. but most of this came via Iran, where many Turkic groups had intermixed culturally, and presumably biologically, with local south-central Asian populations.

Kristiina said...

Four are South Asian M3 and maybe eight haplotypes are South Siberian (1xC4a1, 3xC4a2, 4xD4 ?). Agl13 and Agl53 seem to be M3c1b1b which looks like being very Indian. M3a1 is found in Iran (http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080673).

According to Wikipedia “Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance, political and economic relations between the civilizations.” This map (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk_Road#/media/File:Silk_route.jpg) shows that there were tight relations between India and Central Asia along the Silk Road.

Also the Indian political history has ties with Turco-Mongol conquerors (i.e. Mughal empire).

Moi said...

We know that mtDNA M5 etc, which is south Asian, is present among modern day Romani peoples, and we also know they likely followed or were part of the Seljuk advance into Anatolia, so it could very well be that this M is connected with this population movement.

Krefter said...

@Karl_K,
"Perhaps you would care to rephrase this in a more scientific manner.

Do you seriously believe that there is not a way to know"

Yes I do, there it is impossible. HVS1+HVS2 mtDNA gives very limited information. Even fully sequenced mtDNA couldn't prove or disprove there was population continuum. All they could tell is a similar mtDNA gene pool had been there for 2,000 years, not the exact same people.

Picture this. Someone collects 100 random surnames from a town 1,000 years ago. Then today collects another 100 random surnames to test for continuum. Testing ancient mtDNA is basically doing the same thing except on the mothers side.

Most people have their own very unique mutations that very few others in their population share. The most recent maternal ancestor a large percentage of people in a population share(5% or more) will usually be many 1,000s of years old, and will be shared in large pieces of land not only little towns or ethnicities.

Kristiina said...

This paper on haplogroups in Croatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinians, Serbians, Macedonians and Macedonian_Romani(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8095373_Frequencies_of_mtDNA_haplogroups_in_Southeastern_Europe_-_Croatians_Bosnians_and_Herzegovinians_Serbians_Macedonians_and_Macedonian_Romani) did not detect M3c in Macedonian Romani but, instead, it detected M3c in Macedonians.

Karl_K said...

@Krefter

"Yes I do, there it is impossible. HVS1+HVS2 mtDNA gives very limited information."

So then. It would be easy to tell with more non-mtDNA information. Not at all impossible. Thanks!

FrankN said...

@Krefter: "Someone collects 100 random surnames from a town 1,000 years ago."

Leaving aside that surnames only appeared in Germany some 500 years ago, they are actually highly informative. The following website displays German frequencies:
http://www.verwandt.de/karten/relativ/westphal.html

Ethnonymic surnames provide interesting patterns of population movement, including German eastward colonisation of formerly Slavic lands, and post 30-years-war resettlement. Check out, e.g.

- "Westphal" clustering NE of the Elbe, from Middle Holstein to NE Brandenburg

- "Bremer" with a similar pattern, but also reaching into N.Hesse/ Thuringia and the Rhineland

- "Sachs(e)" clustering in Franconia and Saxony

- "Angel" in the Saarland, "Engel" in the Saarland, the Coburg area and Mecklenburg/ Brandenburg, "Engelmann" in Palatinate and Thuringia/ NC Saxony, "Angelmann" around the Harz

- "Friese" in the Elbe-Saale region, Brandenburg and East Saxony, "Fries" clustering on Saar, Mosel, and the middle Main

-"Holländer" with a similar pattern as "Fries/Friese", but more restricted (Palatinate, Brandenburg, Elbe-Saale)

- "Nordmann" between Lower Ems and Lower Weser, and around the Harz, "Ostmann" with similar pattern

- "Franke" clustering in Thuringia and Western/Central Saxony, "Frank" in Palatinate and Franconia, "Franck" in East Holstein/ W. Mecklenburg, "Francke" just adjacent on the Middle Elbe north of Magdeburg

- "Hess(e)" all across SW Germany

- "Bayer" in Franconia and Palatinate

- "Schwab" in W. Franconia, "Schwabe" in Thuringia, W. Saxony, and north of Berlin

- "Elsässer" around Frankfurt and along the Neckar

- "Schweizer" in Baden-Würtemberg, especially the Neckar, "Schweitzer" in the Saarland and in Hesse

- "Römer" between Trier, Worms and Mainz, and around Augsburg

- "Mailänder" in the Saarland, and East of Stuttgart

- "Walser" (from the Valais, i.e. the Upper Rhone) in the Suebian and W. Bavarian (Pre-)Alps

- "Waller" (Welshman?) a/o around the Lower Elbe, W. Saarland, Southern Neckar valley, "Wallmann" in a W-E belt from the Emsland through northern Saxony-Anhalt to Barnim NE of Berlin

- "Schott" (Scotsman?) from South Hesse through Franconia into W. Saxony

- "Preuß" all over North and East Germany, including non-Prussian areas around Bremen, East Friesia, Thuringia and East Franconia, "Preuss" in Schleswig-Holstein, East Friesia, Palatinate and Swabia.

- "Reuss"/ "Reuß" in Hesse, Franconia and on the lower Neckar

- "Dahn" on Rügen (expectedly), "Dehn" scattered all over the place, including Sarrebruck, the Würzburg area and Central Hesse, but also with a tencency to cluster in Holstein and Mecklenburg

- "Finn" in W. Thuringia, "Finne" around Leipzig, in E Westphalia and the Elbe-Weser triangle.

- "Böhm" in Franconia (expectedly), "Böhme" in Saxony (equally expected), but "Boehm" with a scattered pattern that includes the Lower Weser, the northern Hamburg periphery, and the Central Bavarian Alps.

- "Wende" and "Ballack" (<-Polish) in Saxony, especially Sorbian-speaking areas, "Wendt" across all former "wendish" lands east of Elbe-Saale, but also frequent in western Lower Saxony

- "Pohl" along the Oder, in E. Franconia, and in the Rhineland, "Pohlmann" in Schleswig Holstein, Eastern and SW Lower Saxony, and Westfalia

- "Panzlaff" (<-Pan-Slav) along the Lower Oder, and around Oldenburg, west of Bremen

To those interested in craniomorphology, some Google image search on the a/m "slavic" surnames (Wendt/Pohl[mann}/Panzlaff etc.) is recommended.

apostateimpressions said...

So when the authors say "East Asian", they mean Siberian mixed with south central Asian? Is there much reason to trace any of these M lines to east Asia?

Onur said...

@Kristiina

Thanks for your mtDNA analysis. I suspect there are some Gypsy individuals among the Ağlasun samples. Unfortunately, in the absence of autosomal tests of the Ağlasun samples, I am afraid it is currently impossible to know whether there are some Gypsies among them thus explaining the existence of South Asian mtDNA haplogroups among some of them.



Onur said...

@Apostate

So when the authors say "East Asian", they mean Siberian mixed with south central Asian? Is there much reason to trace any of these M lines to east Asia?

They never use the expression "East Asian" in the paper. They use "East Eurasian" instead. They use it to refer to mtDNA haplogroups usually found in East Eurasian populations (Mongoloids, ASI, Australoids).

Krefter said...

East Eurasian is the stupidest term. Just call it East Asians. None of them live in Europe so why call it Eurasian? Matching genes with easy to say terms is very annoying. WHG, EHG, THG, BHG, IIF, bla, bla, bla.

Ryan said...

Krefter - East Asia would exclude South Asia and Siberia.