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Sunday, December 18, 2016

Kristian Kristiansen on Corded Ware ethnogenesis

Danish archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen will have a paper out early next year in Antiquity Journal on the emergence of the Corded Ware Culture in Late Neolithic Northern Europe. His talk at the recent European Archaeologists Association (EAA) annual meeting was based on the forthcoming paper. Here's a Youtube clip of the talk.

At 6:50 minutes into the clip, Prof Kristiansen speculates that neighborly tensions between Neolithic farmers and Corded Ware newcomers led to the violent deaths of the Corded Ware family buried in Eulau, eastern Germany. In other words, he thinks the farmers did it.

This is a plausible scenario, but there's a chance he's being rough on the farmers. Another potential explanation for these types of macabre Corded Ware family burials, in which most of the individuals appear to have been beaten to death by crazed attackers, is an early form of the ancient Indo-European practice of Sati. More on that here...

Bell Beaker Blogger: Szczepanowice Mass Grave, Eulau Redux W Małopolsce odkryto prehistoryczny grobowiec z czterema szkieletami

Wikipedia: Sati (practice)


Nirjhar007 said...

Well,I think its a bit crazy and controversial to allude Sati in this . It required fire , the Cremation was an integral part of it . CWC AFAIK don't show any cremation . Its around the Carpathian Basin from 2000 BC, where we see IE Cremations.

According to Anthony himself , the Practice of Cremation is native to Asia and didn't arrive from Steppes.

Nirjhar007 said...

But of course burials can somehow equate the notion but I don't think the Idea of Sati can ever be equated with this : Another potential explanation for these types of morbid Corded Ware family burials, in which most of the individuals appear to have been beaten to death by crazed attackers, is an early form of the ancient Indo-European practice of Sati.

Totally crazy suggestion IMO :P .....

Romulus said...

I don't buy the plague scenario. Somehow plague wiped out all of the G2a but not the I1 & I2? Doesn't make sense.

FrankN said...

The Eulau massacre is probably the best investigated crime of the Neolithic, involving - in addition to archeologists, aDNA and isotope analysts - also modern pathologists and crime scene investigators. Last I heard, they had traced back the weapons used for the killing - they in size and shape correspond to typical Schönfelder Group axes. The Schönfelder Group settled on the Upper Middle Elbe, between a bit north of Magdeburg, and Hamburg. They had little CWC influence, if at all, but instead set forth Bernburg (FB) and GAC traditions, producing a/o a kind of proto-BB ceramics.

As concerns Sati, note
a) those Eulau burials all suffered violent death, usuallly slaughtered from behind;
b) the buried were either women, infants/ juveniles, or seniors, with regular adult males missing (the idea is that they were out for taking cattle to pasture, or for hunting, upon their return found their village folk murdered, and set up the burial);
c) CWC was a burying culture, while the Schönfelder Group used cremation.
So, essentially, there is nothing in Eulau even remotely reminiscent of Sati.

Eulau also demonstrates that "Steppic", Yamnaya-like immigrants didn't arrive as militarily superior destroyers of "Old Europe". Instead, they were immigrants suffering violence from the established populace (a quite unfortunate tradition that has survived to date in East Germany).
It finally serves as a cautionary warning: Eulau has supplied around a third of all CWC aDNA we have so far. The context is extraordinary, which should be kept in mind when interpreting the aDNA results.

Or EinSof said...

FrankN, does the bit about military superiority really follow? A similar story might have played out anywhere on the American frontier -- an Amerindian war party kills the women and children while the men are away. Of course, the European invaders were the ones with overwhelming military superiority, presumably much greater than any advantage the steppe invaders had and the Amerindians were almost totally replaced.

FrankN said...

@Or EinSof: Valid point!
However, I guess somebody excavating west of the Missisippi in some 4500 years from now may, in addition to burnt-down settler farmsteads, also recover mass-graves of violently killed Amerindians. So far, there isn't any evidence from East Germany of LN violence against the "natives". And, unlike the Amerindian scenario, "native" cultures such as Bernburg, GAC, Schönfelder Group or Elbe-Havel culture (Potsdam/ Berlin area) continued next to, and unaffected by, CWC, for many centuries until ultimately giving way to BB and Unetice. The only culture that so far has been archeologically evidenced to have suffered external violence is CWC.

Kurti said...

There was a user here in the comment section who did mention something very similar but in higher scale. War of "native" middle Neolithic farmers with the incoming Corded Ware herders/farmers. And he said (linking allot of papers to it) that there are massive mass graves of Corded War families who were most likely slaughtered by the farmers in Germany.

So doesn't sound very unlikely to me.

Kurti said...


"Eulau also demonstrates that "Steppic", Yamnaya-like immigrants didn't arrive as militarily superior destroyers of "Old Europe". Instead, they were immigrants suffering violence from the established populace (a quite unfortunate tradition that has survived to date in East Germany).
It finally serves as a cautionary warning: Eulau has supplied around a third of all CWC aDNA we have so far. The context is extraordinary, which should be kept in mind when interpreting the aDNA results."

That is what I have been arguing all along. From the few historic records of Indo European groups and how the settled in regions, we know they were very simply herders/farmer and traders in search of new lands. They were nomads often settling next to the locals and often beeing subject to oppression at first.

Davidski said...

It finally serves as a cautionary warning: Eulau has supplied around a third of all CWC aDNA we have so far. The context is extraordinary, which should be kept in mind when interpreting the aDNA results.

There's loads of CWC aDNA available now from Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltic states. Some of it is yet to be published, but it has been commented on already.

In other words, don't expect any sudden twists to the CWC story.

Grey said...


"I don't buy the plague scenario. Somehow plague wiped out all of the G2a but not the I1 & I2? Doesn't make sense."

I think it needs a plausible vector but i'm warming up to the idea a bit cos...


there is a bit of a mystery about horses and plague - apparently horses did tend to survive the plague e.g. there's a story about a caravan leaving Cairo and everyone died on the journey and so the horses came back alone

(which speaks to the point that pestis has to survive a journey so journey time and food supply is critical)

also the internet says there are lots of stories (myths?>) that horses (and stable boys) tended to survive plague in cities

now the internet says it's because pestis doesn't like the smell of horses...

(dunno if anyone ever tested that idea or of it's just a tale that spread because people observed horses surviving?) for the sake of argument say it is smell - then people around horses (like stable boys) who smell of horses could be protected by the same smell?

few points that follow


1) if you're ever in a plague epidemic - find a stable and stay there

2) medically speaking could rubbing horse scent on people prevent the spread of plague? seems like horse scent could be a portable quarantine


3) were any of the places less affected during historical plagues, horse trading centres?

4) on-topic: going back to the original point about ydna survival if the steppe dudes were horse traders or in some other way very connected to horses and plague arrived (for whatever reason) then the horse trader folk might be relatively immune to it

(maybe the Eulau people were blamed for spreading plague?)


still need a mechanism to get pestis from the steppe to wherever - either the pestis or a host has to survive the journey from the steppe and before it kills off the people it's traveling with

(hence why water is the most likely route cos of the journey time aspect)


iirc buying horses from the steppe was still a thing in historical times: Romans, Byzantines etc - if there are any records of how it worked maybe some clues in that?

Rob said...

@ Kurti

I don't think we can make such generalisations, especially when it goes against evidence
The steppe groups occupied specific niches and economic strategies. They neither universally conquered nor were they universally oppressed. Their interaction with other groups, and amongst themselves, needs careful case by case study. Dynamics would be different for the Middle Elbe vs Upper Danube vs lower Danube etc

bellbeakerblogger said...

I think a case could be made that Eulau is a type of Sati.

It seems in both cases (Eulau and Szczepanowice) it was the man who was murdered, and then the wife and children (both cases) are then bludgeoned on the head and formatted into a particular gendered burial.

Of course, the wife and children could have been simply executed by attackers, but the age span of the children make this a less plausible, especially if this format is repeated in other places. I remember similar burials in Southern Siberia as well, but too busy to jump in.

AWood said...

@Romulus. If I1 expanded south west from northern Germany after the plague in LBK territory perhaps with Germanic people, it's certainly possible. Also, I2-M423 likely expanded quite recently with Slavic speakers. Both of the mentioned groups were hunter-gatherers, not the people who brought agriculture.

Samuel Andrews said...

"I don't buy the plague scenario. Somehow plague wiped out all of the G2a but not the I1 & I2? Doesn't make sense."

One frickin I1 and one frickin I2 lineage survived. ONE!! Founder Effect!!! C'mon now!

Kurti said...

The fact that they found Steppe aDNA in some of the local farmer groups and allot of EEF in the CWC culture makes me think that we are dealing here with what we call "intermarriage".

What happened here is that there was influx of Steppe dna into the farming cultures as well EEF dna into the CWC culture.

When plague came and the climatic changes killed of the local farming groups and the "Steppe invaders" repopulated the region you dealt with a culture that would have allot of EEF aDNA some EEF mtDNA and little EEF yDNA (there is a CWC sample that seems to be either G or J). That would make you think the plague or "Steppe warriors on horses" killed off the local men and took the females. While the reality looks very different and we are dealing here with a scenario where the local farming groups died off slowly and had to move further south, what is better suited for farming, while the CWC culture that coexisted for long with the local farmers, and therefore had absorbed allot of their DNA likely via marriage, simply took their place.

Nirjhar007 said...


Hi. Well technically Sati or Suttee is the intentional death of Wife(s) after the death of the husband , other family members were not included in this . So those cases should be narrated as attacks and war I think .

Also it is been suggested for GAC, as an archaeologist points me that in GAC there is a large amount of such cases and its also there in copper age Italy .

And in strict sense it is not needed to be IE exclusively .

Samuel Andrews said...

Sorry Rob. I'm really bad with names.

Rob said...


We really need to have detailed knowledge & consideration of regional MNE sequences to form a conclusion. Broad brushed speculation are next to useless. Each subregion of north Central Europe had a different dynamic and pace of change, some areas even had pure hunter- gatherers still existing. The changes we see this cannot be simply reduced to a nebulous concept of "farmer die off".
Whilst the broad picture is more or less known, better and more guided sampling of CW and post-CWC Europe will most certainly refine our understanding, and is bound to out the somewhat simplistic pictures currently being drawn.

Rob said...

That's ok.
I was saying, on basis of current sampling, we don't know when HG I1 "crashed". All we know is 1 sub-lineage began to expand again in the Bronze Age.

Rami said...

Sati involves fire and wives. Killing of children is not an Indo Iranian tradition , as they are held in high status as per Vedas/Avesta and I would infer the same for the Yamnaya people. The family was murdered by locals. Btw how tall were the Yamnaya men on average ?

FrankN said...

@BBB: You need to make yourself better acquainted with the Eulau finds. Here is the pathological report’s conclusion (Meyer, Haak e.a, 2009):

Some of the observed fractures could be interpreted as defense wounds and were not necessarily deadly by themselves, whereas other injuries consisted of lethal perimortem cranial and postcranial wounds. The combination of both is a strong indicator of homicide (Lovell, 1997; Rogers, 2004). This pattern most probably rules out any interpretation of ritual killings or practises like ritual suicide. Although there have been some theoretical thoughts on this matter regarding multiple burials (Hein, 1987; Dresely, 2004) there is no conclusive evidence for any of the two in the Corded Ware archaeological record. If ritualised killing had been practised as a cultural phenomenon, for example as a consequence of the death of an important individual, defense wounds would be rather unexpected.

It seems in both cases (Eulau and Szczepanowice) it was the man who was murdered, and then the wife and children (both cases) are then bludgeoned on the head and formatted into a particular gendered burial

The most apparent murder in Eulau was a 25-35 y old woman killed by two arrows. She was buried together with a 4-5y old child, but no adult male.
A second grave included a 30-38 y old women with cranial trauma, buried together with a newborn, a 4-5y and a 7-9y old child, again without male adult. The newborn was related to the mother, the two children were not.
Then there is a grave of a 25-40 y old male, buried together with two infants, but no adult woman. Some years before his death, the man had suffered injury of the left wrist and hand (typical defensive wound) that had healed badly and most likely severely handicapped use of the left arm . His right wrist and arm was broken around the time of his death, but his skull remained intact.
The last grave includes a nuclear family, made up of an older couple (m 40-60y, f 35-50 y), and two boys aged 4-5 and 8-9 y (children, or rather grandchildren?). As the male described above, the senior had a poorly healed fracture of the left wrist and hand, and fresh fractures of the right and left hands. The older boy’s skull had been fractured from behind, the angle suggests that he was lying on the floor when being hit. As the two adult males, he was buried with an axe.
No unhandicapped adult male was found in the graves.

As it is video time, here a German language documentary on Eulau, which around 30:00 also touches on BB as suspected killers. Towards the end (40:00), the arrowheads and the axe wounds are connected to the Schönfelder Group.

Rob said...

@ Frank

If each time it was a man killed, then his family, could it be retribution / revenge directed at individuals rather than a "inter-tribal" conflict ?

bellbeakerblogger said...

@Nirjhar, Rami,

Not suggesting that these are Sati, but a type of ritual sacrifice of which Sati belongs or is perhaps descended from (itself being unique to the Subcontinent). So killing children and slaves may not be an Indian tradition, but I think this can be well demonstrated elsewhere.


Thanks for the link, although I disagree with Meyer's reasoning that none of the individuals were sacrificed. In each grave it is the senior individual where violence is certain according to tbl 1 (although lack of evidence in younger individuals is likely also).
I wouldn't make a strong argument either way, but I think multiple burials as opposed to individual burials in the CW or BBC's are strongly suspect.

Nirjhar007 said...

I disagree. I consider this highly wishful thinking from you . Whatever it is it can't be related to the ideology of Sati . But it don't matter , I mean Sati is even seen among Polynesians and Manchus, etc.

Jijnasu said...

What many don't realize is sati was unknown to the Vedas. Condemned as a form of suicide in Dharmshastra's upto the 10th century. Mentioned widely in Tamil Sangam literature. It was relatively rare in most parts of India even in pre-modern times

FrankN said...

@BBB: "In each grave it is the senior individual where violence is certain .

Look at the kind of violence: A woman shot by arrows, and the arrowhead is untypical for CWC, but typical for the Schönfelder Group living some 60 km to the north. A 9y old being executed from behind, apparently while lying on the floor, and the wound fits perfectly to Schönfelder Group axes, which had a quite different shape compared to the axe the boy was buried with. Why was he buried with an axe, as were the two adult males with defensive wounds (broken hands)? To honour his fighting spirit?

@Rob: "If each time it was a man killed, then his family, could it be retribution / revenge directed at individuals rather than a "inter-tribal" conflict ?"

In fact, there weren't any "real men" killed (or – more precisely - buried in those multiple graves). They killed one senior (40-60y), and a male adult with a seriously handicapped left arm.
Haak’s second paper on Eulau (aDNA and isotope analyses) demonstrated the three adult women as non-locals. [compare the K.Kristiansen video, he takes these findings as part of the evidence for incoming steppe pastoralists marrying “native”, i.e.. MN post-EEF females], The nearest region providing an isotopic match for the females is the northern Harz, close to (but in fact not part of) the area settled by the Schönfelder Group. The documentary linked above speculates about the Eulau men having robbed Schönfelder wifes, and the assault being the Schönfelder revenge. Sounds a bit strange to me – why wait some 15-20 years, and then kill your own kin instead just taking them back home.
But the “wife robbing” motive may hold some truth – as fighting-age men and juveniles, females in reproductive age are conspicuously absent from the buried, except for that 25-35y old women killed by arrows, and the 30-38y old with a newborn. Were there no girls over 12 in the village, did they all escape miraculously, or were they robbed by the attackers?

Rob said...

@ Frank

The Schönfelder Group used cremation, right ? That's a bit unusual/ new for the region ? If so would you posit any links to eastern groups like Boleraz or Sofievka-C/T ?

postneo said...

The reference to Sati is extremely stupid.

It's similar to a retarded anthropologist branding guy fawkes day or Brahm Stokers dracula as "ancient semitic tradition of reviling Satan. Why?.... well europeans are judaeo christian so everything they do can be labelled such...

Sati is not an ancient indo european tradition.

Sati is a wife of shiva and comes from the Puranas(an ancient work/text). She marries a wild man called shiva and gives up her life as a princess. At a large gathering post marriage, She is ridiculed by her father for her strange marriage. In anger she conjures her powers to create fire and burns up.

Shiva comes looking for his wife. After finding ashes he proceeds to kill his wife's family and many other destructive acts. He also beheads her father. After pleas of mercy, he relents and replaces Sati's fathers head with that of a goat and brings him back to life.

This tale is rebranded in medieval India as an example of spousal devotion by Sati.. e.g she could not tolerate her husbands humiliation and burnt herself. A new practice is invented and where a wife joins husband in a funeral pyre. it is not ancient or vedic.

The original tale of Sati a far cry from joining someone in death. Her husband is very much alive when she burns for example ....

Sati is not recognized as indo-european by conventional indology. In fact if it were to be recognized as such, it would be opening a up a whole can of worms. Including the admission of indo-europeans of the "non-horsy" kind.

Davidski said...

By the way, it's interesting that Kristiansen sees Corded Ware as an off shoot of Yamnaya, considering that he probably knows the soon to be published new ancient DNA results from the steppes, including from the Black Sea Steppe.

Olympus Mons said...

Poimt me to your best post regarding absence of iran neolithic in steppe.

You argue that it was more CHG and not IranN right?

Davidski said...

Well, first of all, you should learn to spell. But anyway, OK, I'll point you to those posts plus a third one with updated mtDNA data.

Also read this paper + the relevant parts of the supp info.

Tesmos said...

Haak correctly suggested a more western Yamnaya population(Black Sea steppe) is directly ancestral to Corded Ware.
We caution that the sampled Yamnaya individuals from Samara might not be directly ancestral to Corded Ware individuals from Germany. It is possible that a more western Yamnaya population, or an earlier (pre-Yamnaya) steppe population may have migrated into central Europe, and future work may uncover more missing links in the chain of transmission of steppe ancestry.''

Olympus Mons said...

For a guy o deletes posts from anyone who even sarcs at him, you sure like to snark and provoke. - Christ, I suppose a lizard will never become an alligator.

Anyway thanks for the links.

FrankN said...

@Dave: Yamnaya is later (after 2900 BC) than CW (ca. 3000 BC in Latvia, see last pages of link below), so it can't be ancestral to CW!

Note also
"Bay Coast Ware (Haffküstenkultur, Rzucewo), including vessels decorated with cord impressions, were dated to 3940–3540 cal BC, i.e. to a period well preceding the Corded Ware/Battle Axe horizon in Europe. (..) Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates obtained from charred food remains should be treated with a certain caution due to a possible freshwater reservoir effect that has not yet been examined in Lithuania."

@Rob: The shift towards cremation, i.e. transfer from Bernburg/GAC/ Elbe-Havel towards Schönfelder happened suddenly around 2900 BC and is as yet unexplained. The Schönfelder cremation bowls (!) are high quality dark burnished ware, technically remiscent of Walternienburg -Bernburg pottery, but with different forms and decoration. Schönfelder bowls stand out for their sun motives, and have AFAIK no parallels elsewhere in Europe. Quite a degree of cultural continuity is indicated by Bernburg ceramic drums also frequently occurring in Schönfelder contexts.

Schönfelder burial bowl:

Walternienburg amphora:

Typical Bernburg Cup (I love them, they look like Bauhaus, which in fact lies less than 40 km to the East):

Bernburg ceramic drum:

The "discovery" of Schönfelder goes back to a 1973 monograph. Since then, little systematic research has been carried out, except for a 1959 summary of finds. There, the role of Schönfelder as bridge between CWC and BB is stressed; it also points at its role in promoting cremation (so-called Ammensleben-Masfeld mixed group, cremations with CW pottery).

They were almost forgotten except for a few regional archeologists before the Eulau case put them back into the spotlight. The best German language description I could find is from the background reader on the Eulau documentary. Interesting here the note on the nicely-carved Schönfelder bone pendants that are remiscent of Danubian gold pendants. A few Yamnaya bone needles have been also found:

The 1937 monograph used cremation to define the Schönfelder Group, but their ceramics are also found in inhumation burials that are either classified as CW (Elbe-Saale) or Single Grave (N. Germany). Also noteable are isolated Schönfelder exclaves, stretching as far as Bohemia, Austria and Slovakia to the SE, and Dithmarschen to the NW (see linked map). All in all, a specific culture quite resilient to external, especially CW influence, but with significant outreach.

FrankN said...

Correction: The Schönfelder Culture monograph stems from 1937, not 1973,

FrankN said...

Another correction (I seem to be distracted..):
This is the correct link for the Lithuanian Bay Coast Ware (Cord-impressed) datings:

MaxT said...


Old example of Cord-marked, egg shaped pottery is from Samara, even older examples are from further east, from Siberia.

FrankN said...

@MaxT: The origin of the "corded" in the ware (which itself isn't too removed from TRB traditions) is an interesting question. Earliest evidence is from Jomon, anyway a pottery pioneer, and from Eastern Siberia. However, no clear traces from there into Europe are archeologically evidenced yet.

Closer in space and time to the Latvia CW find, we a/o have examples from TRB West (ca. 3600 BC), the TRB "Fine ware w. twisted cord impressions" typical for NW Sweden, and the cord-impressed Vra beakers from Central-Eastern Sweden (Link 1 for discussion, picture in Link 2).

Further south, there is Cucuteni C (ca. 3500-3000 BC) with its typical twisted-cord impressed ceramics:

Cord impressions were quite common in Sredny Stog II/III (after 4.500 BC). They somewhat continued into the Dereivka aka Dniepr-Donetsk Culture (late 5th- mid 4th mBC), where they, however, became quite scarce. The main decorative elements of Dniepr-Donetsk were comb imprints, followed by "pricked" patterns. MN "mainstreaming" of cord imprints in SE Europe is therefore attributed to Cucuteni-Trypolye BII/C (from ca. 4000 BC), possibly transferred from Sredny Stog via Mykhailivka on the Lower Dniepr.

On the further spread, see
At the turn of 4th and 3rd millennia BC Funnel Beaker culture communities in Lesser Poland (Gródek Nadbużny, Zimne, Kamień Łukawski) used to import some painted pottery from Cucuteni-Tripolyan partners. A little later ornamentation of some pottery wares with cord imprints was recorded on some settlements of Funnel Beaker culture (Zimne, Majdan Nowy, Tominy) in the way characteristic for Kasperivtsy and Gorodsk groups of the late Tripolye culture.

Looks like a plausible path towards the W. Baltic coast and, subsequently, Sweden. However, Swedish cord-decorated pottery seems to appear earlier than its Polish counterparts. OTOH, Swedish AMS datings, many of which were derived from pottery foodcrusts, are under review for possible reservoir effects – most of the foodcrusts came from fish soup or seal blubber extraction. So, that part of a possible transmission chain still leaves some open questions.

Cord-decorated CT ceramic has occasionally been found among PitComb cultures in NE Ukraine, and may in principle have travelled further north from there to arrive in Latvia. However, geographically more likely is an entrance of cord-impressed ceramics into the Lihuanian Bay Coast Culture and ultimately Latvia from Central-Eastern Sweden, i.e. the TRB Vra Group, especially as cord-impressed Funnelbeakers are also well known from Gotland.

In this respect, it is noteworthy that the Lake Luban area in Latvia, which has yielded the earliest dated CWC assemblage (pot plus battle axe, see my link above) so far, also provides some Funnelbeaker pottery. Moreover, Lake Luban is well evidenced as MN amber processing centre. The amber was imported from the Lithuanian Bay Coast, and after processing traded to the Valdai Hills and the Upper Volga, possibly in exchange for that area’s high-quality flint.

FrankN said...

As addendum to my previous post, closing the geographic gap towards Sweden further, here a paper on "‘CORD’ AND ‘CORD-LIKE’ ORNAMENTS ON THE POTTERY OF FUNNEL BEAKER CULTURE SOCIETIES ON THE POLISH LOWLANDS IN THE 4TH MILLENNIUM BC" that expands the trail to some 70 km S of Gdansk, and pushes the timeframe up to ca. 3300 BC

Interesting here (p. 148): "The east group is predominantly interpreted as an effect of endogenous development with a gradual increase in the share of exogenous components in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC. The latter originated with the cultural circles on the Elbe, in the Carpathian Basin (Danube zone) and in the Black Sea basin."

P. 152: "the identified cord forms clearly represent forms of ‘strings’ and not ‘quasi-ropes’, which limits their strength as a possible piece of evidence in support of concepts arguing in favour of steppe origins (in the sense of links to the economic achievements of ‘pre-Yamnaya’ breeder societies).” The point is further strengthened by the fact that microscopically investigation of the imprints showed all of them stemming from plant fibres, most likely bast, while for a Steppe origin, animal fibres (wool, horse hair) would have been expected.

To locate the various foundspots of pre-CW corded pottery, I prepared a Google map for myself, which others may find useful as well. Gordinesti is a major findspot of the CT Kasperivtsy Group. Khortytsia is the closest spot to Sredny Stog that is known to Google maps. Switch from car to walking to get a better idea of the sites' Relations.,+Poland/Radziejow,+Poland/Kamie%C5%84+%C5%81ukawski,+Poland/Nowy+Majdan,+Poland/Gr%C3%B3decka+162,+22-500+Hrubiesz%C3%B3w,+Poland/Gordinesti,+Moldova/47.3094998,33.9546204/Khortytsia/Razdorskoye+Rybolovetskaya+Artel',+Rostov-on-Don,+Rostov+Oblast,+Russia/@50.4258313,29.0599709,6z

jv said...
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