Dolmen “El Sotillo” (Álava) El Sotillo megalithic site is located in the Alava Rioja county (Basque country), between the limit of Laguardia-Guardia and Leza municipalities, at the south of the historical territory of Alava. The site is 617 meters above the sea level. It was discovered in 1955 by Domingo Fernández Medrano and excavated by himself, José Miguel Barandiran and Juan M. Apellániz in 1963 . It is a megalithic tomb with a corridor and an almost circular chamber, formed by nine slab stones, a corridor and a tumulus of eleven meters of diameter. During the excavation, numerous lithic tools were uncovered, including six pedunculated arrowheads of silex, a bone and a metal arrowheads, a metal burin, retouched flakes, two fragments of foliaceous projectile points, etc. There are some Bell Beaker pottery remains and a cup with incised decorations. The remains of thirteen individuals, including eleven adults (six of them males) were retrieved. The radiocarbon dates placed the initial use of the site at the Late Chalcolithic period, the Bell Beaker period (4390+30, 4350+30, 4040+30, 4000+40 BP). After a hiatus of about half a millennium, the usage of the structure as funerary place increased during the Middle Bronze Age period (3550+30, 3430+30, 3380+30, 3360+30, 3360+30, 3320+30, 3160+30, 3120+30 BP), with one date from the Late Bronze Age (2740+30 BP). La Chabola De La Hechicera (Álava) The dolmen of La Chabola de la Hechicera  is located in the Alava Rioja county, in the municipality of Elvillar. It is a corridor megalithic burial composed by a circular chamber formed by eight slab stones, and a corridor delimited by six slabs and covered by a large slab stone. It was erected during the Late Neolithic and was used in different periods, until the Bronze Age. It was discovered in 1935 by Álvaro de Gortazar and has been excavated in several campaigns by different researchers (1936 José Miguel Barandiaran, 1947 Carlos Sáenz de Tejada, Álvaro Gortazar y Domingo Fernández Medrano, 1974 Juan María Apellániz and 2010-2011 José Antonio Mujika y Javier Fernández Eraso). During these works, the remains of at least 39 individuals have been retrieved. Sylex arrowheads, personal ornaments (such as necklace beads and pendants made from different materials), an idol made of bone and pottery remains (including a well-preserved Bell Beaker cup in the Ciempozuelos style) were also retrieved. Twelve different radiocarbon dates were generated, yielding dates from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age: 3170+130; 3280+40; 4380+40; 4420+30; 4430+40; 4440+40; 4480+40; 4650+40; 4670+40; 4940+30; 4980+30 BP.Parallel ancient genomic transects reveal complex population history of early European farmers, bioRxiv, Posted March 6, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/114488
Wednesday, March 8, 2017
Iberian Bell Beakers: zero steppe admix, no R1b?
Does anyone more versed in Iberian archeology than myself know if some of those new Iberian samples in the Lipson et al. preprint actually qualify as Bell Beakers? If so, it would mean that, unlike all Central European Bell Beakers sequenced to date, at least some of the earliest Spanish Bell Beakers lacked admixture from the Eurasian Steppe. It would also suggest that, again, unlike Central European Bell Beakers, which show a high incidence of R1b, early Spanish Bell Beakers were rich in I2a2a. From the Lipson et al. supp info, pages 36-37, emphasis is mine: