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Wednesday, January 18, 2017

qpAdm tour of Europe: the Bronze Age invasion

Thirty nine modern-day and ancient test populations, fourteen outgroups, and only two rejected models (with perennial European outliers Chuvashs and Saami). Not a bad effort. It has to be meaningful.

Interestingly, the only Neolithic sample that I could find to make this work, after an exhaustive search, was I1495 from the Mathieson et al. 2016 dataset. This is an individual from the Hungarian Plain dated to 4490-4360 calBCE, belonging to the Late Neolithic Lengyel Culture of East Central Europe.

In other words, this person lived not too long before the massive Early Bronze Age (EBA) expansions from the steppes by Yamnaya and other such pastoralist groups. So it's probably not a coincidence that he fits the bill, because the steppe folk would have probably ran into his close relatives, and absorbed many of them, as they fanned out west across the European continent.

Also worth noting is that only a few European populations show extra Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer (Caucasus_HG) admixture at levels significant enough, say, >5%, to suggest that they may have acquired it independently of the pastoralist incursions from the steppe. They're all from Southeastern Europe, and include Albanians, Greeks and three out of the four Italian groups.

It's an interesting question how they ended up with this extra dollop of Caucasus_HG, if they didn't get it from Yamnaya and/or related steppe peoples. One way to potentially test this is to look for temporally more proximate West Asian sources than Caucasus_HG, like, say, Armenia_EBA or Jordan_EBA, and see how they go.

Indeed, Armenia_EBA improves the statistical fits for all of the Southeastern Europeans. Jordan_EBA improves the statistical fits for the Sicilians.

To check my methodology, I also tested Germans and Poles with Armenia_EBA. These two North-Central European groups also show extra low level Caucasus_HG ancestry. However, their statistical fits are not improved by Armenia_EBA, which is not surprising considering their geography.

Therefore, it's plausible that the Southeastern Europeans do carry Caucasus or Armenian-related ancestry that arrived in their part of Europe independently of the pastoralist incursions from the steppe. Based on the available ancient DNA, this may have happened at any time between the Late Neolithic and the Medieval Period, and via multiple population movements. We'll need a lot more ancient DNA to work that out.

See also...

qpAdm tour of Europe: Mesolithic to Neolithic transition

qpAdm tour of Iberia and France


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Kurti said...

Kurti said...

Another thing there are the Jasz people in Hungary who speak a Ossetian related language and said to be descend of the Iazyges or Alans themselves. I have a Jasz person in my 23andme list and he also is G2a. Again could be coincidence. But I don't believe in so much coincidence.

George Okromchedlishvili said...

Ossetians are primnarily Svan language shifters which was noted by prominent Russian scientists researching the topic of their origins
Don G2a belonged to Neolithic farmers and its subclade is absolutely different from ossetian and Georgian one that indeed have a common relatively recent rooting

Simon_W said...

I didn't yet have the time to read through all comments, but a small correction of a stupid mistake a made: As you can easily see in the Italian regional morphs on anthroeurope.blogspot, the South Italians in general are not broad faced, quite to the contrary. I guess Federico's South Italian morph is perhaps (?) dominated by Campanians, who may be the only broad faced region in southern Italy.

Kurti said...

@ George Okromchedlishvili

"Ossetians are primnarily Svan language shifters which was noted by prominent Russian scientists researching the topic of their origins"

You have absolutely no evidence for that claim whatsoever. What a single "prominent" Russian scientists claims (Would like to know his name and on what he bases his opinion) is irrelevant in this case. What you basically are telling me there was once a scientists that said Ossetians are Svans let's all take this as granted. This scientist came to this conclusion most likely much prior to any of the Alanic samples we have today. So he couldn't know better. What if Svans are actually Ossetian speakers who shifted language? I mean there is more Haplogroup diversity within the Kartvellian language family than among the Ossetians.

And what about the ancient Alanic samples from Iron Age Rostov? So you are telling me that there are ancient Alans from Rostov that share the same Haplogroup with Ossetians and speak almost the same language as them vs some Kartvellian speaking group known as Svans who tend to be actually more heavy J2/G2a mixed in Haplogroups, and we should assume that the Ossetians are descend of Svans instead of the Alans with whom they share yDNA as well language. Now come and someone understand that. Or are you implying the Alans from Rostov were language shifters too?

No my friend, I think some kind of Georgian nationalism is being a obstacle here.

FrankN said...

@Rob: "I suspect there were at least a couple of Neolithic streams into central Europe."
Your demonstration case I0048 is among those that seem to have extra Caucasian ancestry, which may have found its way to Elbe-Saale via a third, Bug-Dniester route of neolithisation.

Otherwise, I have just realised that we have a bit of Michelsberg mtDNA from Bruchsal-Aue (n. Karlsruhe, 15 km from the eponymous Michelsberg), first half of 4th mBC: Cleared for direct relatedness, one H, K1a, T2b, J1c, U5a each. yDNA couldn’t be determined reliably, and may have been either E1b-V13, T1a, or J1c. In any case, Levantine or Irano-Caucasian, reflecting possible Cardial influence (w. link to pay-walled original paper).

What is strange is that Dutch seem to prefer Loschbaur in models with Yamnaya/ CWC, but Hungary_HG in models with only CHG. Hungary_HG appears to incorporate an element that CHG lacks, but Yamnaya includes, which is requested by Dutch. That element most likely comes from the EHG side, and could reflect EP migration out of the Carpathian Basin into Eastern Europe. Alternatively, it may relate to Lengyel influence (to Dutch via FB/ Baalberge, to Yamnaya via CT), and Lengyel substrate in CWC,

@Matt; IMO, Analysis of modern Britains needs to consider:
a) A history of English – Dutch/ NW.German relations that commenced long before Anglo-Saxons, signified a/o by
- various parallels between FB and the English Neolithic,
- BB cross-channel relations,
- close relation between the Wessex culture and Unetice (tin trade from Cornwall via Thames, Elbe and Danube to Ancient Greece).
There is indication of substantial migration of Belgae over the Channel into SE England after the Roman conquest of Gaul, and the failed revolt of the Eburones, the leading tribe among Ceasar’s Germani cisrhenani. SE English pre-Roman coins, e.g., strongly resemble 1st cBC Dünsberg (Ubian) coinage.
b) Similarly, the Viking route from Norway via Shetlands, Orkneys and Scotland into N. Ireland is attested as trade route since at least the CA. The Scotch Mesolithic is regarded as part of the Maglemosian, finds even suggest EP contact between Scotland and Norway via the Doggerland coast. Finds of Cornish tin in SE Sweden evidence BA maritime connection. Golden “Kolbenarmringe”, since the late Roman period occurring across the Germania Magna with specific concentration on the Danish and Swedish Isles, have also been found on Ireland (Cove, Newgrange).
Some Pictish tribes, most notably the Wotadini/ Goutodin, bear names that potentially may be derived from Germanic. C.f. the Lugi of NW Scotland vs. the Lugi along the Middle Oder, the Irish Kaukoi (around Newgrange, s.a.) vs. the Germanic Chauci, Dumfries plus various parallels between the names of Frisian Islands (Römö, Amrum, Mulsum, Skylge [Terschelling], Fohr, Helgoland) and the Hebrides (e.g. Rum, Arran, Mull, Skye, Barra, Holy Island).
c) Roman-period migrations, which in tendency should have brought in Mediterranean, i.e. less Steppe-loaded populations and may well explain the lower Steppe proportions observed in Eastern England.
d) Moreover, pollen diagrams point to massive depopulation of NW Germany during the late 8th cent. Frankish-Saxon Wars. England would have been an obvious emigration target. Much of the English toponymy points to Westfalia and S. Lower Saxony (-ton, -ford, -field, -stead, -bridge, -bourne, -ley), settled by Saxons after the 5th cBC, rather than their traditional coastal seats. Hence, a good part of Saxon settlement may only have occurred during the late 8th cent and would not be captured by early Anglo-Saxon aDNA.

Rob said...

@ FrankN

About Loschbour vs K01 ancestry in western Europe: as I suggested earlier, it might be that most of the WHG in modern Dutch, etc, actualy comes from eastern European WHGs, or more directly, western steppe populations which had higher WHG;EHG ration to begin with.
So they might have some "native" Loschbour WHG, and eastern WHG which only arrived with the LN-EBA early Beaker folks.
That's why this is interesting: the WHG and MNE of modern Europeans might not be from their actual territories which they now inhabit, but elsewhere. Another case in point - the Cassidy paper sugested that the Neolithic mixture in Rathlin wasn't from local 'Irish" Neolithics but somewhere in central Europe.

FrankN said...

Rob - I agree. Especially Ireland, but also the Netherlands suggest that such "eastern WHG" should be connected to R1b (Villabruna).

Anonymous said...

To mogło być bardziej skuteczne niż topór z brązu i koń.

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