Computing D-statistics for each individual of the form D(Baltic LN, Yamnaya; X, Mbuti), we find that the two individuals from the early phase of the LN (Plinkaigalis242 and Gyvakarai1, dating to ca. 3200–2600 calBCE) form a clade with Yamnaya (Supplementary Table 7), consistent with the absence of the farmer-associated component in ADMIXTURE (Fig. 2b). Younger individuals share more alleles with Anatolian and European farmers (Supplementary Table 7) as also observed in contemporaneous Central European CWC individuals .We can add a third early Baltic Corded Ware sample, Latvia_LN1, to this list, because this individual was also shown to lack the above mentioned farmer-associated component in ADMIXTURE by Jones et al. 2017. However, in my Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of ancient West Eurasia, all three samples fall just "northwest" of Yamnaya, along with one German Corded Ware outlier, and form a separate cluster that is shifted slightly closer to European hunter-gatherers and farmers. Hence, Plinkaigalis242 and Gyvakarai1 only form a clade with Yamnaya to the limit of the resolution in the analysis by Mittnik et al., but aren't exactly identical to Yamnaya. The relevant datasheet is available here. here). By the way, this is how the Corded Ware set from Mittnik et al. behaves in another of my PCA, which is designed to focus on entho-linguistic-specific genetic drift in Northern Europe. I don't usually run samples older than the Bronze Age in this analysis, the reason being that they often don't share enough genetic drift with modern-day Europeans to produce meaningful output. And to be honest, I'm not quite sure what to make of these results. But it's probably not a coincidence that the Scandinavian Corded Ware (CWC_Battle_Axe) individual clusters so strongly with the Nordic Iron Age and modern-day Scandinavian samples. The relevant datasheet is here. Late PIE ground zero now obvious; location of PIE homeland still uncertain, but... Modern-day Poles vs Bronze Age peoples of the East Baltic The genetic history of Northern Europe (or rather the South Baltic)
Friday, February 2, 2018
Early Baltic Corded Ware samples form a genetic clade with Yamnaya, but...
This is what Mittnik et al. 2018 say about a couple of their Corded Ware, or Baltic Late Neolithic (Baltic_LN), samples from what is now Lithuania: