Anatolia_Neolithic 0.528 Caucasus_HG Kotias 0.379 Yoruba 0.093 chisq 2.813 tail prob 0.421347 Samaritan 0.940 Yoruba 0.060 chisq 3.706 tail prob 0.447229 Cypriot 0.915 Yoruba 0.085 chisq 4.564 tail prob 0.334981 Lebanese_Druze 0.933 Yoruba 0.067 chisq 5.961 tail prob 0.202081 BedouinB 0.998 Yoruba 0.002 chisq 6.311 tail prob 0.17709 Lebanese_Christian 0.929 Yoruba 0.071 chisq 6.660 tail prob 0.155006 Lebanese_Muslim 0.943 Yoruba 0.057 chisq 6.874 tail prob 0.142671 Druze 0.933 Yoruba 0.067 chisq 8.235 tail prob 0.0833513 Iraqi_Jew 0.924 Yoruba 0.076 chisq 8.443 tail prob 0.0766321 Egyptian Roman_outlier 0.900 Yoruba 0.100 chisq 9.262 tail prob 0.0548746I'd say these results provide rather convincing evidence that 3DRIF-26's West Eurasian ancestry is derived from the Levant. Moreover, his relatively high level of Sub-Saharan admixture suggests that he came from the southern Levant or perhaps a nearby region, like the Sinai Peninsula. Interestingly, the best models feature a couple of religious minorities (Samaritans and Lebanese Druze), an island population (Cypriots), and a fairly unique group in terms of genetic structure from Israel's Negev Desert (BedouinB). This suggests that 3DRIF-26 may have belonged to a similar religious or geographic isolate population, or, alternatively, that most of the Levant has experienced significant genetic shifts since he was alive. The rest of the headless Romans were, in all likelihood, born and raised in or near Britain. However, two of the individuals, 3DRIF-16 and 6DRIF-3, show elevated IBS affinity to Lithuanians and Poles. At the same time, they both belong to Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b-U106 (aka M405), which is a marker generally thought to have arrived in Britain with Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians. This might be a coincidence, but probably not. D-stats confirm that they do show elevated Northeastern European affinity relative to the other three Romans. Only one of the Z-scores is statistically significant (>3), but most of the others would probably also reach significance with more SNPs and higher quality sequences.
England_Roman 0.869 Swedish 0.131 chisq 1.784 tail prob 0.775339 England_Roman 0.884 Polish 0.116 chisq 1.971 tail prob 0.741124Data source and citation... Martiniano, R. et al. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons. Nat. Commun. 7:10326 doi: 10.1038/ncomms10326 (2016).